مقالات

articles

همایش بین‌المللی دیزاین (تعامل طراحی صنعتی و معماری داخلی) 1396

Armita Serajzahedi, Manuela Guerreiro, Patricia Pinto, Hassan Sadeghi Naeini

TOWARD HIGHER EDUCATION BRANDING THROUGH SERVICE DESIGN

Abstract

Higher education institutions and universities increasingly attempt applying branding to compete for reputation, resources and attracting students. However academic and empirical papers about highereducation branding are scarce by this date. The particular purpose of this study is to provide an overview of higher education branding with service design approach, in order to find significant gaps and deficiencies in the literature. In this regard, a narrative review of higher education branding literature is undertaken.The findings indicate that higher education possesses the characteristics of a service, like intangibility, perishability, inseparability, and heterogeneity. But as branding theory is rooted in product marketing, branding for services, education included, has not been much developed. While there are some researchersstudying factors which influence students’ choice of university and their satisfaction, there is no holistic model for higher education branding which attend the essential values of education, considering rational and emotional brand elements. In this regard, it may be conceivable to look at Education as a uniqueservice and Higher Education Institutions as a special place or community with special characteristicsand standards. Thus these leading institutions which try to develop valuable experiences with long-term impacts will be special enough to differentiate from others and the real branding will take place. To develop the conceptual framework, this research is focused on customer-based and service design approach, considering higher education institutions and universities as special service providers for students as their main stakeholders.

Florian Lückenbach, Holger J. Schmidt

DESIGNING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURIAL BRAND MEANING

Abstract

Branding traditionally has been associated with products and services; however, the emerging branding perspective focuses on brands as social processes and claims that brand value is co-created by multiple stakeholders. In the same vein, a few publications in the nonprofit literature highlight the relevance of
stakeholder relationships in brand value creation. In this context, trust and legitimacy is ultimately achieved through interactive relationships with customers, partners and other stakeholders over time. Despite the increasing awareness of the relevance of branding for hybrid concepts, such as Social Entrepreneurial Organisations (SEOs), insights into the design process of social entrepreneurial brands have been limited. Drawing on the gaps in the previous literature, this study examines the phenomenon of brand meaning in the context of SEOs. It goes beyond previous concepts in the for-profit and nonprofit literature by presenting initial insights into the processes of actions and interactions through which social entrepreneurial brand meaning is created, expanded, protected, and revitalized.

Sophie Schüller, Daniel Dietrich

Rebranding of retail stores

Abstract

Retail design concepts are complex designs, which have to fulfill functional and aesthetic needs, positively affecting perceptions of consumers. Every three to six years fashion brands update their store concept to stay relevant for customers. The development and roll-out of new store concepts is very cost-intensive, involving many internal (designers, brand managers, sales representatives etc.) and external stakeholders (design agencies, architects, shopfitters etc.). Literature has not addressed the complex decision process of a store rebranding yet. This study aims to better understand the store rebranding process. Thus different stages of the rebranding process, potential motives for the rebranding, the most important stakeholders involved in the process, possible alignment strategies of the old to the new branding, and implementation strategies should be identified. By means of qualitative interviews with fashion brand representatives, four stages have been identified: (1) decision making, (2) concept generation, (3) prototyping of concept, and (4) rollout of concept. Among the triggers for a rebranding are owner change, financial crises, or the regular updating cycle. Store rebranding decisions are mostly taken at top- management level, due to the high investments. Alignment strategies highly depend on the degree of change (incremental vs. fundamental) and roll-out is mostly reinforced for strategic locations only, which implies that for many brands there are up to five generations
of store concepts in place.

Sofia Vairinho, João Guerreiro, Sónia Rodriguez Sánchez, Francisco José León Sanz

The brand definition and the legal approac h in order to obtai n a successful business stra tegy for Spin -off companies

Abstract

University spin-off companies are usually dealing with the novelty of presenting a new product or new service to the economic society. There are industrial property strategies that need to have a support and a strategic definition in order to properly present the emergent company to the society. The purpose of the present approach relies on the necessity of elaborating an industrial property rights pre diagnosis to those emergent companies in order to maximize their knowledge by the time the company enters the market. The objective of this approach relies on the importance of being aware of the world best practices and legal procedures in order to secure an essential industrial property right (trademark, design, or even a patent) for the spin-off. The efforts of globalizing industrial property rights and the necessity of providing to these emergent companies – and for the startup companies in general – new faster and more accessible industrial property rights justified the changes in European institutions, such as the European Union Intellectual Property Office. In conclusion we can discuss that in the present global economy the competitiveness and the importance of the new products and services, that are presented by a new university spin off company to the society, require a branding and strong marketing strategy, based on a proper business and legal advice in terms of identify potential markets to protect the main industrial property rights that can also be one of the main assets of the emergent company.

Mohammad Bagheri, Cláudia Braga da Cunha

Innovation Through Experience Economy: the synergy between products, services and experiences!

Abstract

This paper explores the concept of innovation in services and hybrid solutions, and it further studies experience marketing and experience economy in order to conceptualize an idea of innovation in the experience economy. Based on the reviewed literature, a conceptual model has been constructed which entails the main three aspects of current economy: products, services, and experiences. The model transcends the economic offerings and formulates three approaches which companies can embark on to innovate their propositions. The three dimensions of this approach are New Product Innovation (NPI), New Service Innovation (NSI) and Hybrid Solution (HS). At the center of the model, one can find value as the core offering of every product, service or experience. In the final part of the paper, the authors present conclusions, recommendations, and future research avenues.

Anna Biernacik, Júlio da Costa Mendes, Nelson Matos, Isabel Cristina Tavares Gonçalves Teotónio

MEASURING Studen t´s Erasm us Experience in Iberian Peninsula. An holistic approach

Abstract

Nowadays studying abroad is a popular activity among University students all over the world. To promote this kind of education programmes, the EU created the Erasmus+. The students travel to other places to gain international education and to experience different opportunities. In the highly competitive market of higher education, the Universities’ image and brand play their role, but the most crucial element is the students’ experience which will result in their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Previous studies have already addressed this topic of experience and exchange learning programmes, however, no, attempt thoroughly investigated its influence in the case of students studying in Peninsula Iberia. Therefore, this study’s aim is to assess the Erasmus students’ holistic learning experiences at the high institutions of the Iberian Peninsula. Relying on an experience economy scale, students’ experiences were measured about the most relevant realms of the experience. The study also sought to verify the impact of the Erasmus experience on the students’ academic career and personal development. This research was conducted with a considerable number of participants (219 students) that have studied under the Erasmus+ programme at a foreign country, i.e. Portugal and Spain. The responders (a convenience sample) were required to respond to na online structured survey. Data analysis was conducted using the SPSSv22 software. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and T-tests were used to analyze the data. The main findings indicate that Erasmus students had more entertaining and educational experiences and that the experience was more relevant to personal development than to academic curriculum. The students rated positively the Erasmus experience and were willing to repeat it or recommend it.

Magda Maria Vieira Fernandes Wikesjo

MEASURING CULTURAL EVENT EXPERIENCES: INSIGHTS FROM 365 ALG ARVE

Abstract

Located in the south of Portugal, the Algarve region belongs to the top twenty travel destinations Worldwide, with a local economy relying strongly on tourism-related activities. The 365 Algarve program is a set of cultural and artistic events that was launched in 2016. Its main purpose is to increase territorial cohesion in the region by involving residents and local cultural groups in different projects, a bottom-up approach to initiate and sustain an event program. Cultural events reveal an interesting process to deliver knowledge, produce relational goods, breaking the time line of ordinary life nhancing the subjective well-being of individuals and society. Culture, tourism and territory are experience providers, creating sustainable development, adding meaning to life of residents and unique encounters to visitors. An event experience occurs when individuals are exposed to specific stimuli related to the event, besides the programme itself, such as the eventscape in its social and physical dimensions, producing an individual personal response. In terms of practical application, this research will hopefully contribute to improve measurement instruments to assess the cultural event experience This research project has two main objectives: 1) to test the Event Experience Scale (EES), first developed to assess generic event experiences (Geus, Richards & Toepel, 2016), in cultural events settings; 2) to analyse cultural event experiences in relationship to other latent variables: eventscape, memory, and behavioural intentions.

Fatima Lampreia Carvalho, Maria Manuela Martins Guerreiro

THE ZOOMARINE’S OCEAN OF FUN: AN APPROACH TO THEME PARK BRAND EXPERIENCE

Abstract

Over the past decade, branding has emerged as a topic of significance in theme park marketing strategy (Kao et al. 2008; Chang et al. 2013; Chen & Lamberti, 2013; Fotiadis & Vassiliadis 2016; Jianyu Ma et al. 2017; Milman and Tasci, 2018; Hsieh, 2018). Theme park experience has been conceptualised as a typical hedonic tourism consumption experience (Bigné, Mattila, & Andreu, 2008; Milman, 2001) and issues surrounding hedonic consumption, experience economy and experiential marketing entered the limelight as many theme parks and other “facility-driven” leisure services intended to market and differentiate themselves through the creation and recreation of their physical surroundings (Chang et al., 2013). Findings on theme park experience enhanced practitioners’ understanding of how to design positive experiences for their customers. This work makes strong reference to Schmitt’s (1999, 2003) customer experience and Brakus et al (2009) brand experience. Experiences include specific sensations, feelings, cognitions and behavioural responses triggered by specific stimuli in the Zoomarine’s environment. It is a theme park located in the Algarve region which actively engages in the conservation of ocean life, its species and their habitats, combining several categories of theme parks into one experience. Underpinned by the rich research background on theme this study asks the following research questions: 1) In what ways consumers’ experience and emotions mark the Zoomarine theme park brand? 2) How could one best measure Zoomarine theme park brand experience? The main contribution of this study will be to advance research on theme park branding from an experiential perspective and to improve the practices involved in theme park brand management via a comprehensive approach of a qualitative nature. It will propose valid and reliable set of items that can be useful to measure theme park experience and therefore fill a gap in marketing and theme park literature.

João Pedro Lopes, Marta Silvério

Factors influencing the purchase of yogurts and dairy desserts of Private Label

Abstract

In order to respond to adaptations to the market, private labels are fundamental in the strategies of retailers. These brands overlap with those of the manufacturers, as they are vital to improving the value proposition in terms of price, image and quality. With this research, focused on the private label, focusing on the category of yogurt and desserts, we try to understand the factors that influence the purchase of yogurts and desserts. The study uses the Focus Group technique for the collection of data analysis of content for the treatment of the same. It was concluded that the category of yogurt and dairy desserts is at a crossroads because there are antagonistic factors influencing the purchase and consumption. The category appears to be being positively driven by the promotional pace and the greater capacity to assume as a substitute for milk at some moments of consumption. On the other hand, the category is also being pressured by unfavorable communicational and opinionated phenomena related to the drawbacks associated with milk consumption. The marks of reference seem to have reduced or stabilized the competitiveness of the own brands by the effect of the permanent promotional cycles.

Sónia Moreira Cabeça, João Filipe Marques, Alexandra Rodrigues Gonçalves, Mirian Tavares

Creative tourism as an inductor of co-creation experiences

Abstract

Creative Tourism is characterized by the opportunity that gives visitors to develop their creative potential through active participation in learning experiences that are characteristic of the holiday destination where they take place. There is, in creative tourism, a privileged relationship between tourists (visitors) and local communities (visited residents) where the exchange of experiences, of knowledge and skills, is central and leads to a learning process in which learning to do and effectively do, is a joint exercise of self- affirmation that expresses the creative potential of each participant. The CREATOUR project, a multidisciplinary research and incubation project, aims to develop creative tourism destinations in small towns and rural areas, working with several partners that develop or will develop creative tourism offerings. In order to study and monitor these creative tourism experiences, researchers from the four research centers responsible for monitoring the network, participated in the activities already developed by the pilot projects. From the exercise results a set of observations on the creative nature of the experiments. The analysis of these data offers the possibility of attesting cocreation as a fundamental and distinctive element of creative tourism in relation to other tourism offers, a prerequisite for the definition of what is a creative experience.

Ana María Torres-Caballero,María Alejandra Borbón-Fortunato, José Javier Aguilar-Zambrano

NEW PRODUCT INTRODUCTION ON MARKET IN SMEs: AN APPROACH OF DECISION MAKING BASED ON DESIGN

Abstract

The industrial design as a strategic tool for the decision making effectiveness for new product introduction on market, boost the competitiveness familiar SME’s. This article aims to develop a methodological tool, which simplifies the decision making related with marketing area. To improve the correlation between the market expectation and the strategic plan in enterprises, is proposed a method for manager and, marketers based on the knowledge that underlie the “know how” of the enterprise, through the empathetic, reflexive and perceptive look, worked since co-design and design thinking. The decision making makes easier the strategic plan management, which involves the strategic orientation, the business capabilities, the consumer relationship and the market analysis which is immersed, minimizing the uncertainty and resolving the problems than may turn up during the new product introduction on market. Following on from this, the variables that consider through the corporate culture are: first, organizational learning, information flow and their beliefs; second the environmental contexts are the dynamism, the market hostility and the competition; third, the innovative context and the capability to take risks, and finally the sustainable context that contemplate economic, ecologic and social aspects. That is how the method results based on self-recognition as an analysis factor of strategic alignment, to optimize the decision making on the variables that make part of new product phases: market research and marketing. The testing method is bringing forward as part of the investigation, applied to familiar SMEs of the leather goods sector in Bogotá. For future researches, it is recommended the method validation in SMEs with the four different strategic orientations and at several market contexts.

Anamaria Amaral Rezende Galeotti

THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHING COLOR: A METHOD FOR GRAPHIC DESIGN

Abstract

The use of color as an informational and semantic element is a challenge in both design and communications courses. Disciplines that address such pplication tend to be controversial, since the teaching of color as a significant element of language is quite complex, because it deals with many variables, of both objective and subjective natures, among which is, mainly, the respect for subjectivity and creativity of the future designer. The identification of this last subjective variable as a substantial component in color teaching points out the need to rethink the educational processes of design. This article presents a method of teaching, developed and improved in the last 8 years, applied to the discipline of Theory and Practice of Color, in a bachelor’s Degree in Graphic Design (São Paulo, Brazil). The method challenges the student to discover and understand his subjectivity in order to place himself as an agent of color application in his projects, of the semantic values of color and to understanding his relationship with the support, static or in motion, exploring also the texture and color sonority. This process has proved to be efficient both in terms of the results obtained in the proposed exercises and in the increase of the student’s capacity to elaborate researches, syntheses, visual syntactic analyzes, to understand and to assign meanings. The future designer becomes more confident in positioning himself/herself in front of the creative questions regarding the chromatic choices, supports, means and their interrelations in the project as a whole, as well as its repertoire and its capacity to justify its design decisions. In order to present the method, the article initially addresses the issue of color in design projects, the history of classroom practices, as well as each method proposed since Bauhaus. It presents the theoretical bases of the content of the course, the method exemplified in the program of theoretical and practical classes, and its interdisciplinarity with disciplines of projects, illustrated with works’ students developed in 2017.

Cristina Santos, Marta Lopes, Rui Estrela

DETERMINANTS FACTORS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE IDENTITY OF YOUNG ADULTS THROUGH THE CONSUMPTION OF CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR BRANDS

Abstract

This investigation pretends to identify the determinants factors in the construction of the identity of young adults through the consumption of clothing and footwear brands. The aim is to reveal the influence that purchase of brands may have on the identity process and the research is based on a ociological approach of self-identity theories, which suggest that consumers may use brands to construct, maintain and enhance their self-identities. The self is regarded as a social construct and brands can be used as vehicles for self-expression. Consumption can be very important in the contemporary construction of identity and assume special relevance for young adults. They easily associate clothing and footwear brands with consumer images, demonstrating a well-developed ability to tag each other’s. A quantitative methodology was design to explore the determinants factors between the identity process and brands. It was applied a questionnaire survey to a non-probabilistic convenience sample composed of 319 university students. We used an exploratory factorial analysis in order to identify the underlying dimensions in the items related to the importance of the brands in the construction of self-identity of young adults. Our results show that clothing and footwear brands can reflect the real self (identity) but do not help to become the person people want to be (ideal self). However, for whom footwear and clothing brands are relevant in the construction of their identity, this brands are a more determinant factor to show who they would like to be than to show who they really are, having footwear more importance than clothes. We also identified that young people establish a privileged relationship with consumption, which brings happiness and pleasure, and provides a personal and social satisfaction in a different way for boys and girls.

David Felipe Lindo, José Eduardo Naranjo

A case study methodological model for researc h proj ects that involve design

Abstract

One of the main problems that a designer faces at the beginning of a project is the low level of knowledge about the user and the market. This article proposes a method that will make it possible for a market of objects and products to develop for academic research purposes. These objects-products will develop within the field of industrial design through the reduction of uncertainty regarding the market and the user. This proposal presents a case study about the design and development of a mango machine, in which it facilitates and optimizes post-harvesting processes. These processes originate from the CTA (Technological Agribusiness Passage), a collaborative project among the Secretary of Economic Development in Bogotá, the Cundinamarca government, and La Universidad Nacional de Colombia. An analysis process is carried out to develop the machine, in which advanced loops are used in each phase and cycles are prolonged, allowing the loop to return to the initial phase. However, the process includes ineffective feedback and increases the time for production. A methodological model is proposed for the analysis process in order to decrease the levels of uncertainty at the beginning of the project, making approaches more direct for the user, the market, and the chain of actors. A more direct approach will help to create products with a higher insertion level in the market. In all, this method can serve as a guide for this project, as well as others, so that future results can arrive to the final users more effectively in the implementation phase.

Thorsten Autmaring, Hartmut Holzmüller

Using Ethnography As a Tool For User – Driven Product Enhancement

Abstract

Product innovation is essential for B2B companies to survive in their competitive surrounding, but most innovations have failed because they do not focus on the needs of consumers, especially the needs and desires of the end users of their products. Ethnography is an excellent way to investigate these hidden needs and end users in their natural working environment. With regard to the special case of industrial working behaviour and the sensitive working atmosphere, the aim of this research is to investigate the acceptance of ethnography as a research tool for the improvement of B2B products. Therefore, eight qualitative interviews with CEOs of B2B companies were conducted to examine the acceptance of ethnographic methods especially the participant observation. The main result of this study shows that most of the CEOs have no experience with these methods but are generally accepted after an explanation of the methodology. However, there is still skepticism because Ethnography seems to be time consuming and expensive for the CEOs. They also see a problem with consumer acceptance of participant observation which could make it difficult to get deep customer insights. But all of the CEOs think that a trustful relationship between the producer and the consumer can solve this problem. In conclusion, the acceptance of ethnographic methods in B2B companies exists after a short explanation of the methodology but most of the CEOs have no experience with Ethnography. Because of this there is still sceptism.

Mauricy Alves da Motta Filho

SERVICE BRANDING: OPERATIONALIZING A CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE CENTRIC APPROACH TO BRANDING

Abstract

This paper builds on the intersection of Service Design, Service Dominant Logic and Branding to introduce the concept of Service Branding as customer experience centric approach to branding. It is argues that as the locus of value co-creation shifts towards the use-interactions, and with the growing role of the customer experience in the development of competitive advantage, branding practices should shift their focus towards the development of brand-based customer experiences. Branding practices have evolved in line with the concept of brand – from identifiers of products, brand are now seem as the outcome of the collective stakeholders’ perceptions emerging from their interaction with the brand. Branding has thus evolved from labelling, towards multi-stakeholders approaches that aim as delivering superior customers experience by bridging internal and external values closer. Yet, recently, there has been a move towards the development of the enablers of the service interaction – which also include supporting the employees in performing their functions Building on the concept of Semantic Transformation, this paper proposed a framework for implementing Service Branding. It argues that the first step is to develop an experiential expression of the brand – a Brand Experience Proposition – that can be used to inform the design process. From that stage, it is suggested that the design teams should focus not only on devising the desired customer experience with the brand, but also focus on the development of the service prerequisites – the processes, systems and interfaces that support the value co-creating interactions through which the customer experience the brand. In the final section, implications for practice and theory, and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.

Armita Serajzahedi, Seyed Hashem Mosaddad, Neda Shokranipour, Mahtab Khavareh, Niloufar Vasetipour

STUDY OF COLOUR PREFERENCES FOR IRANIAN SAFFRON PACKAGING CONSIDERING CUSTOMERS’ CONNOTATIONS

Abstract

Packaging as one of the significant factors in the success of product sales and effective advertising tool, has a direct impact on customers’ purchases. Colour as one of the visual elements of packaging can easily lead to customer’s emotional reactions and captures their emotions. The main purpose of this research is to preview customer preferences in selecting saffron based on packaging colour. In this regard, since potential buyers of saffron are females, 60 females were interviewed as research samples to identify the connotations of saffron as a traditional Iranian spice. The connotations with high frequencies were divided into five categories, including: feelings, social memories, symbols, product’s value and product’s attributes. To provide an efficient approach for the selection of appropriate packaging colours, categories were evaluated through questionnaires and then matched to the colours. To eliminate the impact of other visual elements like text, typography and image, common appearance features were extracted from existing packages with the same weights (1 grams) to use as packaging samples with selected colours. The paper examined these colours using a conjoint study among customers in order to derive the colour combinations for packaging samples, based on colour connotation. After presenting samples to 20 females, the result of the study indicated that Iranian customers preferred orange-red colour of hot nature of saffron, gold colour representing the expensive and luxurious product and also lavender colour as a symbolic option of the flower of saffron. It also became clear that if the colours of the package are selected according to customer’s connotations, the packaging will be more identifiable. Such researches will assist marketers and packaging designers to evaluate the effectiveness of colour combinations in saffron packaging designs.

Pedro Quelhas Brito, Nisrine Chercani, Diogo Martins

Manager’s perspective on hospita lityquality: From conceptualization to operationalization

Abstract

Service Quality has always been considered an important strategic pillar in the hotel industry. However before its implementation and control managers have to understand its importance what and how to practice. Besides, Tourist perception toward service Quality influences the service delivery and ultimate satisfaction. However, the needs and wants are divergent from one tourist to another. Such situation influences the Tourists’ perception of service quality. Nowadays, the real challenge for hotel managers is to implement an adequate service quality system that satisfies tourists’ needs and meets their quality expectations. The present research aims to (i) explore what service quality means, from the perspective of hotel managers and (ii) how they are intending to guarantee a quality service to their customers. In this regard, an interview guide (in Portuguese and French), was applied in Portugal and Morocco. Data were collected from 50 hotel managers of different graded hotels (3, 4 and 5 Stars Hotels). The Hotel Managers were interviewed face to face and the answers were taped and transcribed. Moreover, the interviews were retranslated into English to assure the meaning accuracy. Subsequently, our findings revealed a how they define and conceptualize quality, what they prioritize the link between their concept of quality the practical orientations they pursue. Although, they their definition share at least three of the major attributes found in the literature the importance they attach to them showed the highest variability. Apparently only the rewards of the procedures/strategy/control tend to be exclusively their merit. In contrast, they blame the practitioners/team for the flaws and the shortcoming of the procedures/rules application. The cultural differences between Portugal and Morocco were also
highlighted. Hence, only the major similarities were reported among the higher ranked hotels.

Ghaith Breiss

Examining the visua l culture of the mediterranean

Abstract

Many Mediterranean cities represent their visual identities through logos, these logos have been helpful in the perception of the required image and the branding of these specific areas. While a great deal of information has been gleaned about the importance of branding and positioning through logos, the
relationship between the overlapping layers of the undefined geographical space of the Mediterranean borders and its visual cultural representations has been understudied, and the results are inconclusive. This article will highlight how diverse Mediterranean cultures communicate their identities and present their images using logos. Moreover, it will discuss the significant implications these visuals disclose about the Mediterranean. This paper carried out a multistage qualitative study designed to provide an understanding of the patterns that divide and bound between the north of the Mediterranean and its southern part. In order to accomplish our objective, we applied a semiotic analysis on 100 coastal cities logos where their colours, compositions elements and taglines were carefully examined. Our findings enrich the theoretical perspective of the Mediterranean visual culture. First, they shed new light on logo semiotics and its diverse characteristics. They also extend our knowledge on the contribution of culture in the creation of a logo. Third, they provide an integrative framework for understanding the various Mediterranean divisions and perceptions of the Mediterranean Sea pertaining each group A possible limitation of the present approach is the scarcity of logos in many regions, especially the non-European one, which created an uneven comparison between the two shores.

Ricardo Melo, Miguel Carvalhais

AFFORDING SERENDIPITY: HUMAN ACTIVITIES FOR VALUABLE UNPREDICTABILITY IN THE DIGITAL MEDIUM

Abstract

With the ubiquity and pervasiveness of computational media, the present-day is one that, for many, is spent observing, interacting with, and gathering knowledge from digital sources. They are an integral part of our personal, social, and professional lives, not only as tools but as media. However, the vertiginous adoption of digital media as the privileged method for virtually all our endeavours, from the most mundane to the highly specialised, has resulted in a necessity for the tools and methods used to interact with them to be created, transformed and mutated in medias res. The consequence is that we are unable to foresee the impact that new systems can have both on our habits interacting with media, as well as the impact that these systems have on ourselves—on our psyche and personality—as interactors. As part of our larger research on Serendipity in Interaction Design, in this paper we explore how the domains of serendipity and their manifestation as value translate into different activities that are carried out by interactors within the digital medium, through the identification of different clusters of activity related to serendipitous systems, highlighting common strategies and illustrating the various possibilities of action that are possible for these systems.

Martin van der Zwan, Stanzi Winkel MSc

A NEW DESIGN FOR MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC SPACE

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to spark the dialogue about both existing and new ways to approach the management of public space. The ultimate objective here, is the creation of public spaces that constantly are of sufficient quality while the available resources are managed in such a way that waste of materials and funds is prevented.

Main objectives
1. Presenting an overview of the development of ways to approach the management of public space over the years.
2. Evaluating these ways to approach the management of public space.
3. Drawing the contours of a new way to approach the management of public space.

Main conclusions
Many new public spaces demonstrate that a lot of thought was put into their design and materialisation. Their functionality, too, received much attention – especially when mobility/traffic issues were involved. Nevertheless, too often we see public spaces showing signs of premature wear and tear, litter, wrong
usage, too little liveliness and too little attention to sustainability. Not until after years and years of ‘underachievement’ a rigorous intervention takes place, which regularly involves a completely new design and the associated high costs. Costs paid by the government as well as by the environment.
This can and should go differently. This paper will draw the contours of a new approach to the management of public space, which I will call ‘city improvement’. Its new characteristics, inspired by design thinking, are following:
1. Sensing and responding and prototyping
2. User focus and Co-Production
3. Working integrally

Armita Serajzahedi, Seyed Hashem Mosaddad

IDENTIFYING STUDENTS’ PREFERENCES TO DESIGN PLEASANT LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Abstract

According to the importance of education, the core mission of universities is to offer training and research services to promote the knowledge and the proper skills. One of the educational infrastructures to achieve the effective education is to provide learning environments. In terms of learning environment design, the greatest focus is on identifying the general issues related to ergonomics and students’ emotions and pleasant environment are ignored. In Hedonomics, when the performance and safety needs of users are fulfilled, it’s time to deal with emotions. The method of perception, satisfaction, pleasure and emotion of the student in designing a learning environment is critically important and can provide an enormous impact on their motivation to learn. This study has attempted to issue Hedonomics as a tool that allows the designer to design products, services and environments that increase the amount of pleasure. In this regard, through interviews with industrial design students, the characteristics of a pleasant and enjoyable learning environment for practical courses were questioned. In the later phase, these attributes categorized and inquired through the questionnaire with Likert scale. Conjoint Analysis helped this study to determine students’ preferences for a pleasant learning environment based on three main attributes, including: Emotions, Amenities and Communication. It became clear that emotion is the first priority, amenities and communication are the second and third priority respectively. The result of this study indicates that changes such as playing light music, facilities for comfort like preparing drinks, access to resources as well as comfortable communication and interactive furniture arrangement can provide a pleasant learning environment.

Miguel Ángel Sánchez Jiménez

Estudio de la labor del community manager en el sector hotelero

Abstract

Internet y las redes sociales constituyen un campo de conocimiento que se está afianzando en el mundo del marketing en general y en sector turístico y hotelero en particular, en este sentido son los community manager los encargados del ámbito digital del negocio y de la gestión de dichas redes sociales. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio es estudiar cuál es la labor que realizan los community manager en el sector hotelero. Para ello, Se ha desarrollado un enfoque cualitativo mediante la realización de entrevistas personales a 10 community managers de establecimientos hoteleros. Una vez realizada las entrevistas se recopilaron los datos en unidades de análisis que se interpretaron para obtener los resultados. Así, los resultados determinan las redes sociales como un instrumento ideal para la captación y fidelización de clientes y una integración cada vez mayor con el proceso de reserva. Facebook sigue considerándose la red social con más relevancia, pero cabe destacar el aumento en la utilización de Instagram. En general, cabe resaltar la importancia cada vez más creciente de la actuación de los hoteles en las redes sociales: visión estratégica.

Pegah Zandi, Pooyan Sedarati

SMART TOURISM EXPERIENCE ENHANCEMENT THROUGH CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAPPING: GAPS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR A CUSTOMIZED EXPERIENCE

Abstract

Customers’ experience has become a major concern and goal among businesses internationally. The rise of numerous channels and touch points has created a complex system of customer journey which draws the attention to a shift from value creation for the firms to value creation for customers. Tourism as one of the biggest industries in the world constantly provides its customers with noble experiences. Tourism industry after the advent of information and communication technology (ICT) due to its complex nature had to adapt to new demands which create an intricate system of journeys for each customer. Smart tourism is one the key players to offer a multitude of choices, touch points, and smart experiences in a customized package. This study aims to scrutinize the main touch points in a tourism service provider in Iran through customer journey mapping. Therefore, the main focus is on the customer experience and value creation for the customers through service design approach. It is intended to illustrate the points where tourists have an encounter that ends up with having different experiences and ultimately design and proposes a more customized and pleasant service and experience to clients. To this end, customer journey mapping has been used as a tool to identify the touch points of smart experiences in the aforementioned business in Iran to find pportunities for creating enhanced customer experiences. This is an ongoing study and more observation and investigation will be added in order to improve the accuracy of our customer journey map.

Javier Perez-Aranda

Commitment and Competence as Influencers of eWOM Va lence. The Case of Spa nish Accommodatio n in TripAdvisor

Abstract

The expansion of new technologies uses as a way of bringing together companies and consumers supposes, multi-channel strategies in different activities or industrial sectors. Specifically, the review platforms such, as TripAdvisor have changed the communication between tourist accommodation and consumers. This, research, through the study of correlations, analyses the influence of commitment (training, planning and, communication) and competence (productive use, active use and adoption of technology and knowledge), of accommodation with the obtained valence (much more positive than negative comments, more positive than negative comments, same positive and negative comments, more negative than positive, comments and much more negative than positive comments). This research is based on a random sample, of 328 Spanish accommodations with presence on TripAdvisor. With the help of Scraper software version, 1.7 we obtain the comments received by the accommodation on TripAdvisor. These comments will be, the foundation of the valence variable. To study the correlations between valence, commitment and, competence it is used SPSS version 23. The results show a relation between commitment and valence and, competence and valence. This research improves the understanding of eWOM and provides the basis for, digital marketing strategies to get better reviews and ratings from customers. Future research can also, investigate different company strategies as inductors of the eWOM valence.

Pedro Palos-Sanchez, Marisol Correia, Jose Ramon Saura

Mobile Apps Designed for Marketing and Tourism: The case of Spa nish and Portu guese User Behaviour in Mobile Tourism Apps

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to improve understanding about the mobile Apps Designed for the Marketing and Tourism markets in Spain and Portugal. Both these countries have well above the European average number of Smartphones per inhabitant. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2) was adapted to investigate the deter-minants of users’ behavioural intention for mobile tourism applications. Trust in the Internet operator was added to UTAUT2 as an external variable. To investigate the determinants of the users’ behavioural intention, a survey of 552 users was carried out and then analyzed with the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) model. All the constructs of UTAUT2, except for price value and facilitating conditions, are significantly related to the behavioural intention to use mobile applications. Habits and social influence are the factors that most affect behavioural Intention. The results found help us to improve understanding of user needs when deciding wether to download a mobile tourism app and when using it at their destination.

Nuno Baptista

A literatur e review on plac e branding researc h: the past , present and the way for ward

Abstract

Places compete for resources such as foreign investment, exports, skilled labor, residents and visitors. That reality has lead marketing scholars and also practitioners to search for new ways to highlight the individual characteristics of places that could enhance their competitive strengths. A major step in this search for place distinctiveness was the realization that places can act as brands. This literature review analyzes the state of the art of place branding research, focusing on the historical development of place marketing and place branding, the most relevant theories used, main methodologies applied, the identification of research gaps in existing literature and possible research opportunities. We concluded that the literature of place branding is still in an infant phase, were some of the well-established concepts of branding are starting to be explored and adapted to place branding. Researchers mostly used classical branding and stakeholder theories, particularly the constructs of place identity and image to conceptualize place branding. From the
analysis of the selected articles it was possible to conclude that there is a lack of empirical and quantitative studies in the domain.

Nicolau Miguel Almeida

THE IMPACT OF THE GDPR ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CRM STRATEGY AND THE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE

Abstract

The new General Regulation of Personal Data Protection (GDPR), in force since May 25, 2018, poses a new challenge to hotel establishments’ managers, in terms of privacy policy and explicit consent tothe collection, use, consultation and treatment of customer data. This research seeks to analyze the perception of the hotel establishments’ managers of the Alentejo region on the impact of the new GDPR in the implementation of the CRM (Customer Relationship Management) strategy and its integration in the operations of the hotel establishment. The analysis of the managers’ perception allows us to understand the process of integration of the customers’ data in the operations of the hotel establishment, in order to obtain a better knowledge about the customers’ behavior for the hotel to provide unique and memorable experiences.

Jianjian Mou, Pedro Quelhas Brito

Perc eptions of Europ e as tourism destinatio n: perspectives of Macau and mainland Chinese outbound tourists

Abstract

Since 2013, China has already become the largest global outbound tourism source market exporting more than 1 billion tourists (UNWTO, 2015). However, although already being the second most popular destination among Chinese outbound tourists right after Asia, Europe remains understudied in academia (Jing & Wang, 2015). A majority of the extensive research covering Chinese outbound tourism investigates into Asian destinations, particularly Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau SAR (as they are the most visited destinations), followed immediately by Australia (Jin & Wang, 2015; Jørgensen, Law, & King, 2016). Only a handful of existed research studied European destinations, with quantitative researches of motivations and consequent market segmentation predominate the area (Assiouras, Skourtis, Koniordos, & Giannopoulos, 2014; Corigliano, 2011; Prayag, Diswgna, Cohen, & Yan, 2015). Macau SAR is a Chinese city fundamentally shaped by Portuguese influence. Ong and du Cros (2012) revealed that Macau provokes nostalgia and aesthetics, rather than anti-colonial feelings among the researched Chinese backpacker tourists. This indicates a possible effective alternative for Portugal, a lessknown European destination to enhance its influence of tourism in mainland China. Meanwhile, Macauoutbound tourists, whose psychology cannot be simply equated to their mainland counterparts due to the special historic background and consequent society structure, are rarely studied except by Io and Hallo (2009), and McKercher and du Cros (2008), which also omits a good sample examining whether long-term interaction with a foreign ethnic group in a territory affects the attractiveness of that foreign territory as tourism destination. Overall, this research addresses current gaps in literature about Macau and mainland Chinese outbound tourists in the context of Europe.

Homayoun Golestaneh, Manuela Guerreiro, Patricia Pinto, Seyed Hashem Mosaddad

ON TH E ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN PLACE-BRAND MANAGEMENT

Abstract

In recent years, there have been many efforts to rethink place branding by emphasizing on an interdisciplinary call to redefine structures, strategies, performance measurement and the future of place branding, all rooted in the complex nature of the place and more importantly, the diversity of its stakeholders. However, the number of studies examining the roles and mutual relations of diverse stakeholders in the process of creating, developing and managing place-brands is still limited. This article, therefore, aims to identify and classify several types of stakeholders associated with place branding and particularly, the role that each type plays in the process of place branding. In order to achieve an inclusive vision of stakeholders’ role, 79 articles from three major global databases, and scholarly publications or academic journals on place branding were identified. These articles were examined and categorized according to proposed criteria, such as research themes, bibliographic data, types of frameworks proposed and geographical locations focused. By carrying out a thematic analysis, our findings suggest that there is a lack of consensuses over the types and role of stakeholders in the place branding process. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the necessity of having a holistic vision of management of place-brands stakeholders as a sine qua non. The outcome of this study is proposing a foundation for an inclusive place branding. It draws the attention to the necessity of redesigning place branding process by moving towards a more human-centered practice, a grounded paradigm on the centrality of humans (stakeholders), in the co-creation, development and management of place-brands.

Maryam Eskandarifar, Nima Safdarian, Mina Eskandarifar

STUDY OF THE POSITION OF MINA KARI INDUSTRY IN BRANDING OF ISFAHAN CITY

Abstract

Isfahan is one of the most beautiful cities in Iran and the destination of many domestic and foreign tourists, and millions of tourists visit the city every year. There are many myths about this city that distinguishes this city from other cities of Iran. The Mina Kari is a brilliant art of fire and soil, with a rich and brilliant color, dating back to 1500 BC. Mina Kari is a colored coating of glazed transparent, semi-transparent or opaque glass that is used to decorate the surface of the surface by creating special features on the surface of metal, ceramics, glass and other materials and is cooked in the oven. The city of Isfahan is one of the major centers of the Mina Kari, and perhaps the only center for producing this art. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of Mina Kari and brand brands on the brand in Isfahan. This research is descriptive and survey based on available sampling method. The sample size of the survey was 384 tourists and sellers of the field of the Naghshe Jahan Square in Isfahan. Structural equation modeling and SPSS software were used to analyze the data. The findings of this research show that the quality of construction, variety of products and packaging of the Mina Kari industry have a direct and significant impact on the brand. Also, the quality of the Mina Kari industry and trust in the brand have a direct and
significant effect on brand loyalty.

Aarash Baktash, Pooyan Sedarati, Daniel R. Fesenmaier

DESIGNING SMARTER TOURISM DESTINATIONS: COLLABORATION BETWEEN DESIGNERS AND DATA SCIENTISTS TO CREATE VALUE FOR VISITORS

Abstract

Designing complex systems such as smart tourism destinations requires contemporary business models which incorporate complex interdependencies between key stakeholders among dominant sectors and their subsectors and the visitor. To this end, it is argued that the Design Science in Tourism (DST) approach to developing tourism destinations provides a comprehensive foundation for value creation by focusing on the management of individual experiences. Further, it is argued that DST provides the foundation for the implementation of innovative business models as it requires the cooperation between designers (through design thinking), data scientists and information technologies. That is, the design thinking approach provides a process for innovation while data scientists use a range of technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to develop new approaches for optimizing efficiencies within and among places/industries. This paper concludes by proposing a model of smart(er) tourism that adopts a holistic approach which reflects the complexity of a tourism system with goal of providing a foundation for innovation in tourism destinations.

Cristiano Ferreira Loureiro, Sérgio Dominique Ferreira

The importance of the user interface and user experience in a mobile design application: a case study in the area of school education

Abstract

The purpose of this project is to explore how a mobile application design can enhance both mobile User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI).
Methodology: The guidelines considered in this study were the Apple Human Interface Guidelines and the Material Design by Google. The first step was to execute a benchmarking, identify references throughout the moodboard process, build user personas, make user stories, think the information architecture, the development of the sitemap structure to improve the user flows, as well as drawing sketches and wireframes. Finally, we intend to test possible flows through interaction prototypes, enhanced by visual design. Results: Four apps were identified in the benchmarking process and essential references recognised by moodboard. At the current stage of the research, two user personas were created. The following elements constitute our actual proposal for the sitemap: A login/register page to allow the user to enter or register in the app. After login, the user finds the dashboard with the primary information about the student and can easily access to other key features like the diary, the chat with which the user can start a conversation with the teacher, multiple notifications to keep up with the pupil activity, and a specific profile containing information about the student. We expect to obtain more results from the prototyped interaction performed through a market research. Originality/value: This research intends to comprise a simultaneous mixed approach (design and marketing) in the development of a mobile application.

Guilherme Sette, Pedro Quelhas Brito

Anti-marketing bloggers

Abstract

Most literature discusses the hit-girls phenomena or the power of the online influencers – regardless of the digital platform. Apparently, all of them seem exclusively driven by monetary compensation paid by sponsors/brands. Our research focused on bloggers who hate such marketing approach and are oriented by the community well being and their contribution to consumers interaction free from brands dominance. Based on in-depth interviews with 11 Brazilian bloggers we look to understand their motivations and communication strategy to cope with brand manager’s pressure.

Patricia P. Iglesias Sánchez, María Carmen Jambrino Maldonado, Elena Fernández Díaz, Juan José Caparrós Pino

ONLINE REPUT ATIONON THE WORLDS FIVE TOP LEAGUES

Abstract

Public opinion, 2.0 conversations and new ways for brands to reach and interact consumers on Internet have now changed strategies and practices in companies. This study highlights the importance of online presence for reputation. In this case, the analysis is based on the world’s five top leagues (Premier League, LaLiga Santander, Serie A, Bundesliga and Ligue 1) in the main social media (Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube). This paper shows that monitoring social media is a strategic tool for brand building and to support the decision-making process in any area. The main objectives are to analyse which the most online reputable league and conduct a comparison between different football competitions. Additionally, the impact of the most meaningful players in the 2.0 environment is measured. The PRGS model, designed by International Advertising Bureau, is used to carry out this research. A social media analytics tool is applied to complement this work. Findings of this study highlight that a planned strategy in social media, improves the reputation and increases engagement and participation of fans. The paper contributes to the existing literature of online reputation in a specific and underresearched field. Finally, it is expected to provide several practical implications and challenging directions for managers of sports competitions.

Larissa Siqueira Camargo, Adriano Pereira Cardoso, Erik Felipe Caetano da Silva, Eudes Cristiano Vargas, Fernando Henrique Santana Novaes, Letícia Graziele Roque, Victor Vinicius Biazon

Anti-marketing bloggers

Abstract

One of the great and well-known marketing strategies to achieve environmental assessment is the SWOT matrix – S-strengths; Weaknesses-W; T-Threats; O-opportunities. It helps professionals and businesses in general, indicating a profile of strengths and weaknesses of the market for the professional or business performance. In Brazil, the profession of interior designer is new, and recently was on the regulatory process, and little concrete information has been applied to the profile of professionals working across the country. Thus, the main objective of this research was to identify what attributes are considered by Brazilian Designers as strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities in their careers. Hence, was established a profile for each region and a general profile considering the whole country, of the professional working actively on interior design. Therefore, information was rose up from structured interviews with professionals in each of the five regions of the country. At the end with the compilation of the results, it was realized that some items appear with greater or lesser importance in certain regions. A small market variation between regions was pointed, despite the similarities derived from a single financial and management system. Therefore, the market strategies to be used, as a way to overcome weaknesses, or to strengthen the strengths, can be presented as unique, regardless of where the professional is located within the country.

Sílvia Fernandes, Manuela Guerreiro, Carina Brazão

THE ‘FOURTH INDUSTRY’ IN TOURISM MARKETING: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

Abstract

In the information age, sales strategies have become more complex. Factors such as globalization and the development of new technologies (IT) influence consumer behavior due to the variety of choices. Companies want to make a difference in the consumer’s mind by connecting with them actively and creatively. Also customers want to contribute with ideas, not only for products but also for services, brands and campaigns. Cyber-physical and mobile media tend to revolutionize marketing and business models across multiple industries. The present work reflects on how is Portugal in terms of Internet of Things adoption (IoT) and digital marketing. And which impacts can the trends to the fourth industry have, through its machines, platforms and processes, in tourism marketing and services.

Javier Perez-Aranda

Predictors of Number of Comments for Spa nish Accommodatio n in TripAdvisor. The variables Commitment and Competence

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of commitment (training, planning and communication) and competence (productive use, active use and adoption of technology and knowledge) on the number of comments received by accommodations on TripAdvisor. Previous literature recognises review platforms as places in which special attention must be paid. These websites suppose places of consumer empowerment through information creation and accommodation evaluation that helps them form their decision. In this work, with the support of correlations, it is studied the influence of commitment (training, planning and communication) and competence (productive use, active use and adoption of technology and knowledge) and number of comments received on TripAdvisor. To get the number of comments available on TripAdvisor, it is used Scraper software (1.7). To study the correlation between commitment and competence and number of comments SPSS software (version 23) is used. As a result, a relationship between commitment and competence and the number of comments received in TripAdvisor is verified. These results shed light on the phenomenon of User Generated Content and review platforms and on the implementation of actions to improve the results obtained. Future studies can investigate other relationships between commitment and competence and eWOM, such as ratings, very positive and very negative comments, etc.

Luis Nobre Pereira, Paulo Carrasco

Enhancing the Pricing Expertis e of an Online Distribution Channel

Abstract

This study aims to define a dynamic pricing strategy and a contextualized offer to the e- consumers profile in order to improve the number of reservations of an online distribution channel. Segmentation methods were used to identify and validate an optimal number of market segments. A profile of the market segments was studied, considering the characteristics of the e-consumers and the probability of reservation a room. In addition, the price elasticity of demand was estimated for each segment using econometric models. Finally, predictive models were used to define rules for classifying new e-consumers into pre-defined segments. The empirical study illustrates how it is possible to improve the intelligence of an online distribution channel system through an optimal dynamic pricing strategy and a contextualized offer to the profile of each new e-consumer. A database of 11 million e- consumers of an online distribution channel was used in this study. The results suggest that an appropriate policy of market segmentation in using of online reservation systems is benefit for the service suppliers because it brings high probability of reservation and generates more profit than fixed pricing.

Célia Veiga, Margarida Santos, Paulo Águas, José Santos

Are millennials transforming global tourism? Challenges for destinations and companies

Abstract

The phenomenon of globalisation has contributed to a greater uniformity among approaches towards different aspects of life. Two important tourist segments that have developed as part of this process can be identified: seniors and millennials. The former stands out in terms of its size and income, as well as time availability, while the latter has a high predisposition to travel despite the millennials’ financial restrictions and time constraints (Santos et al., 2016). Although both segments are recognised as important in tourism, millennials represent a greater challenge for the tourism sector due to their characteristics, causing in some cases real disruption in how the industry is structured and how it currently works (Pendergast, 2010). In addition, since the senior segment perceive themselves as younger than their chronological age, they adopt behaviours similar to those of younger people, thus increasing the relevance of millennials’ preferences (Patterson and Pegg, 2009). This study’s objectives were to identify the characteristics of the millennials segment most likely to cause significant disruption in the way the tourism sector is currently structured. A profile of this segment was developed along with an analysis of the marketing implications for destinations and tourism providers. The research involved examining the academic, institutional and trade literature to provide an overview of the millennials profile and the related developments causing disruptive changes in the tourism sector. The characteristics of the millennials with the greatest potential to disrupt the tourism sector are their strong digital skills, high degree of permanent connectivity, search for outstanding experiences and altruistic behaviours. The results already present from these characteristics – with a high probability of intensifying in the future – are the practice of volunteer tourism, search for places not connected with tourism and adoption of new, disruptive technologies. Even though volunteer tourism is an act of altruism, it can have harmful implications for tourist destinations in which it occurs.

Cristina Pedro, Rui Pedro, Paulo Neves

A SPA CLASSIFICATION FOR PORTUGUESE HOTEL UNITS TO PROMOTE THE EQUALITY IN TH E SUPPLY – A MARKETING STRATEGY FOR SERVICE AND SPA DESIGN

Abstract

The fast-growing industry of health, wellness and wellbeing has increased the number of SPA, in which the lack of standards and transparency in the SPA supply has been noted especially in hotel units. This paper aims to provide a classification for SPA in hotel units which may contribute to the equality of SPA supply by providing a clear idea to the client of what to expect in each SPA category. Additionally, it may also provide to architects, spa constructors and projects managers a functional concept in SPA design. A review of the relevant literature allows to set the criteria in three categories: Midscale SPA***, Upscale SPA**** and Luxury SPA*****. The study methodology consisted in the Delphi Technique with 23 field experts: SPA Consultants, SPA Managers, Hotel Directors and Architects accomplished by two rounds. The score of each category was obtained by similarity to the Portuguese legislation of hotel unit’s score classification. The results indicated a clear differentiation between the three categories depending on the type of equipment (e.g.: Sauna, Turkish Bath, Hammam, etc.), number of equipment, minimum square meters of SPA total area, minimum square meters of thermal area, the SPA staff number, the SPA staff professional qualifications,type of treatments in the SPA brochure and number of treatments in the SPA brochure. In addition, this study showed that SPA staff professional image and also the equipment scheduled maintenance contributed for a well-defined differentiation between the three categories, Midscale SPA***, Upscale SPA**** and Luxury SPA*****. This classification may contribute to a definition of SPA standards, market segmentation, equalityin SPA supply through the control and inspection procedures by the Tourism of Portugal or by another independent board that reports to the Tourism of Portugal.

Ana Pinto de Lima, Sandrina Francisca Teixeira, Fernando Silvério da Cruz

GENERATION Z AND SOCIAL MEDIA: THE INFLUENCE ON THE CONSUMER PURCHASING

Abstract

The globalization of markets leads companies to face constant challenges, with digital marketing being a marketing area capable of contributing to the differentiation of the offer and the conquest of new segments. Digital marketing is one of the most significant area of management in the e-commerce environment in the last decade. Considering the importance of the technological revolution and the growing use of social media as a digital marketing tool, this study aims to investigate whether the young generation digital native consumers, ie, the young born between 1990 and 2010, are influenced by the social media. Millennials often look to their peers to define and assess the product or service quality, they have been identified as a strong driving force behind online shopping and media usage. This generation major the best the opinions of their fellow consumers to be more credible than traditional media. The Internet and social media are empowering this new generation to be more active and social. In this study aims to relate the use of the social media tools and the influence on the consumer purchasing. Thus a quantitative methodology was used, through the application of questionnaires at the Federal Institute located in the interior of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. 233 students answered the questionnaire. These Generation Z youth are about to enter the labour and consumer market and influence their family and friends when purchasing products and services. It turns out that social media, applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp and Snapchat, actually influence young Generation Z consumers in their purchase decision. The digital marketing strategies allow to direct the offers of the brands to this new generation.

Marcelo Eduardo Ribarić

THE BRAND AFFECTIVE EXPERIENCE: The advertisi ng movies and the productio n of affections

Abstract

Advertising movies are multifaceted object that can’t be seen solely for its consumer promotion function, nor its audience as a simple consumer. In this article we launch to the publicity communication a thesis: It is possible for advertising to use an affective appeal as an alternative to persuasion. In this way we are faced with the following problems: 1 – Which features of advertising can make the elements present in the movies affect and touch the spectator’s emotions? And 2º – How do these affections rebuild a collective imagination and reinforce the image of the brand? To answer these questions, we use the film analysis of APPLE’s Misunderstood institutional advertising spot, broadcast on social networks for Christmas 2013. Seeking to explore the advertising movie from the contemporary quotidian through a methodological strategy that follows the theoretical presuppositions of the theory of the affections and the peircean semiotic analysis. This study points out the aesthetic choices used to sensitize the spectator, which creates, strategically, emotional elements that enliven and accentuate everyday scenes, usually unnoticed, that produce the so-called “shock of the real”, the use of a realistic aesthetic that aims to produce a cathartic haunting effect on the spectator, this allows us to understand the affectivity in the perceptual process in his body mind experience, and how this same experience can reinforce the positioning of a brand.

Seyed Hashem Mosaddad, Seyed Homayoun Golestaneh

TH E ROLE OF PRODUCT VISUAL CH ARACT ERISTICS IN CU STOMER DECISION-MAKING PROCESS

Abstract

One of the most important topics in the marketing is identifying the factors that influence customer decision-making. Among these factors, the visual characteristics of products have the great impact on creating significant value for the product and attracting customers’ perception and attention. However, each product has different functions that affect its visual characteristics, directly or indirectly. These functions may vary based on different type of products and their Initial function but they usually include aesthetic, emotional, ergonomic and technical functions. On this basis, the main purpose of this paper is to identify key indicators affecting the product’s visual characteristics and their impact on the customer decision-making process. This study consists of two interconnected steps. In the first step, participants in this study were asked to express their preferences for the proposed functional indicators related to the visual properties of a specified product (a teapot) through a pairwise comparison process. In the second step, they were asked to determine their preferences from six different types of teapots have been selected with different visual characteristics. A conjoint analysis was employed to understand participants’ preferences related to product’s visual characteristics. Our results indicated that the customer decisionmaking process is a set of perceptual, deductive, emotional and analytical behaviours. This process has three main features: First, customers do not use their cognitive and emotional skills individually, but rather use them at the same time. Second, both cognitive and emotional structures, draw attention and affect the customer decision, to the same extent and finally, the customer decides on the basis of his/her feelings and perceptions of the product attributes, which has a straightforward relationship with the visual characteristics of the product. Hence, in order to stimulate the customers to choose a specific product, it is necessary for designers to focus on aesthetic, emotional, ergonomic and technical functions of the product as well as its visual characteristics like affordances, ease of use, colour, material, and overall form.

Robab Savari, Zeinab Savari, Arezoo Khosravi Farsani

DESIGN TO PROMOTE PATIENT CLEARANCE SERVICES FROM THE HOSPITAL AND PROVIDE RELATED SOLUTIONS

Abstract

Considering that the discharge process from the hospital is the last step of patient-hospital communication, and according to studies shows a lot of problems faced patients after discharge, this paper examines the reasons for the need to provide hospital services to patients after discharge, with the aim of establishing a new relationship between patient and hospital 7-14 days after discharge until the end of recovery period and returning to the normal life. This research attempts to answer the needs of patients after leaving the hospital in one of the Tehran hospitals using a co-configuration approach. It is assumed that the relationship between the hospital and the patient does not end after discharge, but its begins. Design begins with a conversation between the user (patient) and the system (hospital). Design knowledge helps to form an artificial one to solve a problem in practice. This angle of design is the factor that creates conversations and provides hidden needs in this paper, the result is that the use of co-configuration approach can help patients to cure.

Ilda M. Pedro, Júlio da Costa Mendes, Luis Nobre Pereira, Bernardete Dias Sequeira

Alumni’s Perc eptions about Commitment to wards University: Drivers and Consequences

Abstract

In the last decades Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) worldwide face drastic changes due to demographic, financial/economic and globalization factors. European HEIs adopted a more professional management structure. As one of the responses to this shift, approaches upon their alumni as an important source of support, reveal the assumption of a new assignment, based on relationship marketing. This paper intends to capture alumni’s assessments and perceptions about decisive dimensions on their commitment towards alma mater. Academic experience (AE) and their current situation are highlighted. The former is a transformational phase on their lives, it shapes future relationship; the second comprises sociodemographic issues and interactions with alma mater. Moreover, their perception about the HEI’s role in this commitment-relationship is likewise valuable to reach their involvement. Study took place at a Portuguese university. Three focus group, with 21 participants, were conducted to get consistent information permitting further developments. Data were analyzed through software NVivo, and results give interesting sights revealing dimensions like: relationship with teachers; extra-curricular and initiation
activies as decisive on their AE. Likewise, recommendation; sharing experience and to choose the university to further studies underline evidence of what they are willing to give back. A strong sense of belonging defined sentences and expressions and proud of being part of the university was referred by the majority of participants. But they all demand an effective ability of the university to communicate with them. Overall conclusions offer a clear scenario of alumni’s commitment, giving HEI’s management valuable clues to improvement, but its responsibility in this commitment-relationship was also stressed. Moreover, results also provide strong contributions to literature enabling other HEIs to replicate the study or simply use results for their own development.

Marzieh Allahdadi, Mehran Hashemi, Khadijeh Hajivand

ASSESSING THE SATISFACTION OF DERMATOLOGISTS WITH EXAMINATION EQUIPMENT

Abstract

In today’s world, skin and beauty are one of the most important issues in human societies. Naturally, this health and beauty will be taken care of and protected by skin and, if illness occurs, diagnosed properly and on time, and then treated. Diagnosis of skin diseases is based on many factors, one of the most important of which is the diagnosis of skin color, moles, or lesions on the skin surface. There are diseases that can be detected by skin color. The diagnostic tool is a light examination light with flexible and flexible mechanics to see areas of the skin that can be difficult to access. There are various types of check lights including: stand, desk lamp and handmade. The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of skin physicians (users and buyers of the product) from the precision of examination and the proper diagnosis of skin color and lesion. In order to achieve this goal, the descriptive-analytical research method has been used and through the gathering of information in a survey-documentary way. The statistical population consists of dermatologists who participated voluntarily in this study. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire and the Likert scale was used to obtain satisfaction. To analyze the data, frequency, mean and standard deviation were used and for analyzing the hypotheses, the correlation test and the mean of the statistical population were used. The findings show that most skin physicians are dissatisfied with the diagnostic tool and skin color, and designers

Parvane Rezakhanli

THE STUDY OF INTERACTIVE SERVICES DESIGN AND HOW THEY INTERACT IN DESIGNING A SERVING PACKAGE FOR STUDENTS’ SUCCESSFUL PLANNING

Abstract

The necessity of planning is known to everyone and one of the most important periods in which one must act according to a plan is the time of being a student. Until now There has not been such a service to help and facilitate this type of planning. Any existing service related to this was peripheral without being effective. This required money and energy while it did not provide any effective services. It did not present a way for planning either. In this research the best and most suitable services and the most effective equipment in accordance with the user’s demands are dealt with. Finally an effective and comprehensive package of planning services with new capabilities was designed.

Mehrin Nazari, Ashkan Mohamed

Examining the Role of Media and Social networks on Sale

Abstract

The undeniable role of Technology Management on the progress of our organization got us to introduce the newest available tools in one of these managers’ business fields, which are to use updated technology for marketing and customer attraction. In this article, we try to emphasize on the necessity of the managers’ familiarity with the related services of marketing, social networks & marketing, a whole view (but with good detail) towards systems based on internet and show these tools as well as related records and stats. Moreover, we will point some details about how to use them in advertising and developmental goals of the company. Because of that, first, we will review marketing and social network definitions, and then we will classify the related internet services into five groups including websites, webinar, social networks, weblogs, and Email services (Email marketing). As following, we will describe each of them and their features from the management views. Finally, we will introduce some indexes for measuring costs and usefulness and can obtain their profit amount in E-marketing by collecting and analyzing data, which we have done about on each marketing internet tools.

Ana Lopes, Miquel Domènech, Guillermo Talavera

Service Design: challenges in the transportation sector

Abstract

Service Design (SD) evolved with know-how from other areas of design (e.g. interaction design, design thinking), marketing and management, gaining importance as a reflexive and innovative process, applied to public and private services. This paper provides a state-of-the-art review about its usage in the field of transports and a showcase of relevant projects which applied SD tools. Through the analysis of a questionnaire answered by service designers, three main challenges for the future are framed: (i) concern with the overuse of technology, that may mask user-centred perspective; (ii) usage of SD tools and processes displaced from their iterative purpose; (iii) designer’s political engagement, as a way of creating positive impact in communities and people, considering sustainability and extreme users.

Mehrin Nazari, Ashkan Mohamed

Examining the Role of Media and Social networks on Sale

Abstract

The undeniable role of Technology Management on the progress of our organization got us to introduce the newest available tools in one of these managers’ business fields, which are to use updated technology for marketing and customer attraction. In this article, we try to emphasize on the necessity of the managers’ familiarity with the related services of marketing, social networks & marketing, a whole view (but with good detail) towards systems based on internet and show these tools as well as related records and stats. Moreover, we will point some details about how to use them in advertising and developmental goals of the company. Because of that, first, we will review marketing and social network definitions, and then we will classify the related internet services into five groups including websites, webinar, social networks, weblogs, and Email services (Email marketing). As following, we will describe each of them and their features from the management views. Finally, we will introduce some indexes for measuring costs and usefulness and can obtain their profit amount in E-marketing by collecting and analyzing data, which we have done about on each marketing internet tools.

Ana Lopes, Miquel Domènech, Guillermo Talavera

Service Design: challenges in the transportation sector

Abstract

Service Design (SD) evolved with know-how from other areas of design (e.g. interaction design, design thinking), marketing and management, gaining importance as a reflexive and innovative process, applied to public and private services. This paper provides a state-of-the-art review about its usage in the field of transports and a showcase of relevant projects which applied SD tools. Through the analysis of a questionnaire answered by service designers, three main challenges for the future are framed: (i) concern with the overuse of technology, that may mask user-centred perspective; (ii) usage of SD tools and processes displaced from their iterative purpose; (iii) designer’s political engagement, as a way of creating positive impact in communities and people, considering sustainability and extreme users.

Hadiseh Mannan, Farzaneh Honarbakhsh

IDENTIFICATION OF EFFECTIVE FACTORS IN THE PRESENTATION OF KILIM IDENTITY THROUGH PACKAGING

Abstract

Handcrafted as a rich and important source of Iranian culture and civilization, it has a unique potential to introduce the country’s cultural haracteristics to the world. In the meantime, product packaging can be a valuable medium for introducing Iran’s craftsmanship to the world. Considering the importance of the role of handicrafts of a country as a representative of the culture of that society, it is necessary to state with proper mediation the national identity of that country. The purpose of this article is to determine the important and influential factors in providing Iranian handicrafts identity through proper intermediary. In order to obtain accurate information, the definitions and function of the role of this intermediary (packaging), in presenting and identifying Iranian handicrafts, have been investigated. Then, in order to provide a conscious identity and culture in the design of packaging, a model of identity design and culturebased is proposed. Finally, the results of the research showed that designing the identity and ulturebased design of a handicraft product, with respect to cultural factors, can ensure a significant degree of adaptation of the proposed solutions and, while preserving the cultural and identity features of Iran In packaging design, with a better understanding of the experiences of other cultures, provide practical and effective solutions in this regard, which will improve the designs and result in effective results. In this research, the importance of packaging in introducing the identity and supply of handicrafts has been studied and its mission is to improve and transfer.

Alie Ghaemmaghamian, Marzieh Allahdadi

APPLICATION OF DESIGN THINKING IN MODERN MARKETING

Abstract

From Philippe Kotler’s perspective of modern marketing, new and major forces include globalization, technology advancement, digitalisation, and media. Considering the global advances and the urgent need for companies to survive and compete internationally, the use of modern marketing is required. As in modern marketing, customers are the key for each company, executives and companies can meet their needs by customer satisfaction. Among the new marketing challenges, the use of new technologies for marketing purposes, the existence and increase of international competitors, change of large targets into minor parts, the development of advertising and the significance of their content. Design thinking is actually more than a problem-solving. It is an approach to developing a solution. This process is carried out in accordance with the understanding of the subject under discussion, the definition of the problem, the idea, the design of the prototype, the design of the project, and its implementation. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the application of design thinking in modern marketing. To achieve the research purpose, the analytical- descriptive research method has been used. The achievements of this study are; the focus on the end user, the process rooted in group work, the consideration of the nature of empathy and human emotions, as a kind of evaluation and implementation of corrective actions, tosolve real problems in the best possible time. Therefore, design thinking with the development of ideas will make the desired result.

Hadiseh Mannan, Farzaneh Honarbakhsh

Design thinking: its power in designing better

Abstract

Design thinking is generally defined as an analytic and creative process that engages a person in opportunities to experiment, create and prototype models, gather feedback, and redesign. Several characteristics (e.g., visualization, creativity) that a good design thinker should possess have been identified from the literature. The primary purpose of this article is to summarize and synthesize the research on design thinking to (a) better understand its characteristics and processes, as well as the differences between novice and expert design thinkers, and (b) apply the findings from the literature regarding the application of design thinking to our educational system. The authors’ overarching goal is to identify the features and characteristics of design thinking and discuss its importance in promoting designers’ problem-solving skills in the 21st century.

Zahra Masoudiamin, Elahe Moravej

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MARKETING AND GRAPHIC DESIGN OF PACKAGING BASED ON THE SENSE OF VISION IN PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENT

Abstract

Today, the graphics of packaging is the most important factor in marketing, because it helps packaging make the goods appear attractive in many cases. In fact, it can be stated that many purchase decisions are made based on the packaging design of the product. Creative managers always want more than 80% of commercial communication and purchase to be carried out through vision, seeking to attract customers and sell more using attractive images that can be understood by the user. Vision is the dominant system and the most powerful sense utilized in marketing since it is impossible to comprehend the visual message without the sense of vision. Marketing and graphic design in the advertisement of products with an emphasis on vision are effective on the user’s behavior. This descriptive- analytical research has investigated and compared different instances of food product and the effect of advertisement on the purchaser’s behavior. The obtained results demonstrate that vision is an important factor encouraging the user to purchase the product, being common in the field of advertisement between marketing and graphicdesign.

Elnaz Abbasian, Mohsen Faizi, AsgharMohammad Moradi, Reza Khosroabadi, Abbas Erfanian Omidvar

The efficiency essence of cognitive science too ls in arc hitectural design to reduce depression symptoms

Abstract

In the world of digit, science brings novel facilities for human’s welfare in the city. Urban sprawl and some urban inappropriateness, environmental pollution, necessity of creating new urban users, and limited access of urban human toward nature has caused lots of mental illnesses. Depression is a common mental illness in cities and based on “The World Health Organization” in 2030, it will be the third common disease. The most important part of design goals in space and buildings are mental health of people. So, biological indicators are really noticeable in architectural design to reduce illness symptoms particularly in the field of mental health. Cognitive science can reduce the gap between designer and users’ needs by interpreting data, taking a glance at the effects of real design space on human body and his nervous system, and environment effectiveness rate on human mental and physical health. The methodology of this research is based on Documentary method. The purpose of the research is finding common field identification of architecture; ervous science exploitation which cognitive tools connect them.

Mahsa Akbari, Mostafa Bigdeli

Predicting Custom er Behavior usi ng CRM: RFM Analysis and Data Mining

Abstract

Having a lucrative interaction between companies and clients is a laborioustask in the competitive and globalized environment. Customer Relationships Management (CRM) is a goodapproach which helps the organizations to focus on the bilateral relationships of organizations and clients so as to identify the
customers’ needs and demands. In other words, rather than focusing on different types of clients in order to make suitable interactions, having an appropriate CRM system plays crucial role in any organization. However, in order to have an efficient CRM system you might collect accurate data through Data Mining. Data mining is a process which supports organizations to collect and organized information regarding their clients and their needs.As reason that accessing the relevant information is on the top priority; RFM (Regency, Frequency and Monetary) analytic program is a useful analysis to recognize consumer behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of RFM analysis along with back propagation neural network (BPN) topredict sales volume in different industries. Furthermore, this article is an attempt to offer a model based on Data mining, RFM analysis and prediction in order to predict customer future plan which can increase the effectiveness of CRM.The novelty point of this study is the combination of neural networks and RFM on prediction of CRM system which provides considerable hints with many practical implications for future studies. Furthermore, a model had been offered based on the proposed view so as to specify the CRM, RFM analysis and Data mining correlation in predicting customer behavior which results in enhancing organizations’ effective Performance and Flexibility.

Farima Afraze

INVESTIGATING THE FACTORS OF ATTRACTING THE AUDIENCE TO VISIT ART EXHIBITIONS: THE CASE OF ISFAHAN ARTISTS’ FORUM

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to identify touch-points in art exhibitions, in order to attract more audience and increase the number of visits to art exhibitions. A field research (direct observation) was applied to identify these touch-points and a questionnaire was developed and applied in artists’ forum as one of the most visited art exhibitions in Isfahan. From the research, it could be concluded that environmental concerns of the exhibition space including light, relative humidity, and temperature, have a significant influence on visitors. It was also concluded that applying the Multisensory Design approach to design these touch-points, stimulates the five senses of the audience, creating a distinct experience for them and, consequently, will increase the number of visits.

Sayeh Sangi

INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF INCLUSIVE DESIGN PRINCIPLES ON DESIGNING URBAN FURNITURE TO ENCOURAGE THE ELDERLY TO ATTEND IN PUBLIC SPACES

Abstract

According to United Nations World Population Prospects, elderly population all over the world is increasing. Iran’s national statistics also confirm this fact. The increase in the number of elderly people as a proportion of population makes it necessary to focus on the problems that come along with ageing. At this stage of life, people encounter physical and psychological changes, limitations and special disability. Inside urban areas, there are many open spaces like public parks and squares which are used by the elderly for social interaction, fun, leisure, and so on. However, in addition to the problems of infrastructures and facilities, many public spaces contain furniture that does not fit the abilities and limitations of the elderly. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the principles of inclusive design on increasing the suitability of public spaces in relation to the needs of the elderly. This paper draws on a case study of a research project carried out in Tehran, Iran. Based on a mixed-methods approach, this research utilized a combination of methods such as interviews, questionnaire and secondary research. The findings of the research were categorized based on the impact they had on designing inclusive furniture and encouraging the elderly to attend public spaces. Building on the concept of the hierarchy of user needs, the author has developed a model for designing urban furniture that, with regard to the ability of the elderly, relates their needs for presence in public aces and inclusive design indicators.

Shima Sahebhonar

INVESTIGATING THE INDICATORS AFFECTING THE PERSISTENCE OF TELEVISION COMMERCIALS IN LONG- TERM MEMORY OF IRANIAN AUDIENCES

Abstract

During the past several decades, television advertisements and commercials have performed a prominent role in transferring product and brand information to customers in order to capture their attention. One of the essential features of a commercial advertisement is to have a long-term impact on the audiences’
memory. Memorability plays a key role in the success and effectiveness of advertising. Therefore, it is worthwhile to examine memorability of television commercials by measuring audiences’ brand (or product) recognition and recall. This study intends to identify the indicators that make television commercials more persistence in the long-term memory of the Iranian audiences. In this regard, a number of television audiences were asked to participate in an in-depth interview to express the details of the advertisements that they recall and the reason for recalling them. Various details and features were announced by the participants, including words, motto, character, music, colour and product itself. The result of the analysis of collected data shows that combining the verbal communications of television commercials with music and humour will increase their attractiveness and make them more persistent in the minds of the audience, even for years. In the competitive market, the results of such research can serve companies to promote television advertising more effectively.

Zeynab Agakhani, Seyed Hashem Mosaddad, Mehdi Khakzand

INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF URBAN ELEMENTS ON INCREASING SENSE OF PLACE AMONG CITIZENS OF TEHRAN

Abstract

Today, with a lack of respect for indigenous urbanization, our cities are facing a crisis of identity and everything goes on, this crisis becomes wider and deeper. Tehran as one of the most populous cities in Iran has unique characteristics, so urban elements can play a special role in promoting the quality of human environments and sense of belonging to the place. This feeling is an important factor in shaping the communication bases of users and the environment, and will ultimately lead to the creation of quality environments. This study uses a survey approach to pay attention to the traditional elements of Iran to the urban elements of Tehran. Data gathering was done using a questionnaire and interview on the elements of Nowruz. A cluster sampling method was used to sample the citizens. The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the impact and urban elements of the relationship in increasing the sense of belonging to the residents of Tehran. The results of the study show that urban symbols are the main elements of urban identity. Based on the viewpoint of the sample population, the sense of belonging to the city of Tehran is above the average and there is a significant relationship between the variables of the story and creativity with the spatial sense of belonging. So that the creativity and use of the novels and the old stories are further enhanced, the sense of belonging to the citizens of Tehran increases.

Jahangir Hoseinpourm, Sara Taravati

TO INVESTIGATE THE CHALLENGES OF DESIGNING AND MARKETING SMART PRODUCTS IN ORDER TO INCREASE SALES IN THE IRAN MARKET CASE STUDY: SMART DOOR LOCK

Abstract

The competition for the production and sale of intelligent products in the Iranian market generally faces various problems. The problem of how the design, production, communication, product quality and, most importantly, the need to create and then respond to it in the target market will increase the problem. The people of the community are interested in providing new and intelligent products in the Iranian market, but the competition and response to this interest cannot be achieved only by offering a few limited products. The old strategy of companies to stay in the business environment was to provide high-performance products, low cost and after-sales service. But in today s marketplace, due to the continuous change in customer taste as well as the rapid advancement of technology, companies need to provide unique products or in terms of intelligence, along with creating value for the customer and establishing longterm customer relationships. The purpose of this article is to show that, if it wants to provide a successful product, it will be a good foundation for market research by considering what can be sold and not selling what can be built, and that designers should have a good marketing Needs to be digitized. As a result, using the descriptive-analytic method in this article, the result is that marketing and design can easily be created in the target market, and then, with proper responsiveness, the sales of new intelligent products in to raise Iran

Fatemeh Moazami, Sara Aghaa Abbaslou

INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF PACKAGING ON INCREASING THE SALES OF HANDICRAFTS

Abstract

The occurrence of the industrial revolution and the arrival of the machine created a tremendous transformation in the production and fabrication of products, and gradually the production of most of the products that were made of beads was shaped and mass- produced. Due to the wide variations in modern societies, the use and functions of handicrafts have also changed. But it should be noted that this particular product has both a market share and sales position and where it is in the world market. What maintains the survival of crafts and traditional products is its proper sale and supply. But unfortunately, their sale in the market is like the traditional product itself. The traditional sale is to wrap that valuable item between paper and plastic and deliver it to the customer! Packing is one of the main challenges of handicraft sales and exports, and is the first visual element that communicates with the buyer and is essentially the product of the product and the buyer. The purpose of this paper, which has been done by analytical-descriptive method, is to investigate the effect of packaging on the sale of more handicrafts in global markets. Many handicrafts are not well sold out due to ignorance of the principles of supply and packaging. According to the survey, more than 45 percent of the sales sector is dedicated to packaging, and the more attractive the packaging is, the more customer willing to buy.

Mahsa Akbari, Mostafa Bigdeli

Predicting Custom er Behavior usi ng CRM: RFM Analysis and Data Mining

Abstract

Having a lucrative interaction between companies and clients is a laborioustask in the competitive and globalized environment. Customer Relationships Management (CRM) is a goodapproach which helps the organizations to focus on the bilateral relationships of organizations and clients so as to identify the
customers’ needs and demands. In other words, rather than focusing on different types of clients in order to make suitable interactions, having an appropriate CRM system plays crucial role in any organization. However, in order to have an efficient CRM system you might collect accurate data through Data Mining. Data mining is a process which supports organizations to collect and organized information regarding their clients and their needs.As reason that accessing the relevant information is on the top priority; RFM (Regency, Frequency and Monetary) analytic program is a useful analysis to recognize consumer behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of RFM analysis along with back propagation neural network (BPN) topredict sales volume in different industries. Furthermore, this article is an attempt to offer a model based on Data mining, RFM analysis and prediction in order to predict customer future plan which can increase the effectiveness of CRM.The novelty point of this study is the combination of neural networks and RFM on prediction of CRM system which provides considerable hints with many practical implications for future studies. Furthermore, a model had been offered based on the proposed view so as to specify the CRM, RFM analysis and Data mining correlation in predicting customer behavior which results in enhancing organizations’ effective Performance and Flexibility.

Larissa Siqueira Camargo, Adriano Pereira Cardoso, Victor Vinicius Biazon, Erik Felipe Caetano da Silva, Fernando Henrique de Santana Novaes, Eudes Cristiano Vargas, Leticia Graziele Roque

SWOT ANALY SIS OF PRODUCT DESIGNERS OF BRAZIL

Abstract

One of the great and well-known marketing strategies to achieve environmental assessment is the SWOT matrix – S-strengths; Weaknesses-W; T-Threats; O-opportunities. It helps professionals and businesses in general, indicating a profile of strengths and weaknesses of the market for the professional or business performance. It is understood that with this set, it is possible to establish better market strategies. In Brazil, the profession of product designer is new, and little concrete information has been applied to the profile of professionals working across the country. Thus, the main objective of this research was to identify what attributes are considered by Brazilian Designers as strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities in their careers. Hence, was established a profile general profile , of the professional working actively on product design field in Brazil. Through an structured interviews with professionals it was possible it was realized that some items appear with greater or lesser importance in certain regions. Despite this, the small variations can not be understood as a synonym, since a different market is visible in each region. Therefore, the market strategies to be used, as a way to overcome weaknesses, or to strengthen the strengths, can be presented as unique, regardless of where the professional is located within the country.

Zahra Naeimi, Zahra Mousavi Khameneh, Farzaneh Honarbakhsh

Determinants of Wallpap er Designing Based on Visua l Components of Persian Carpets

Abstract

Carpet is commonly used as a handicraft industry in all regions of Iran. Persian carpets have different weaving methods and motifs according to areas wherein they are woven. Persian carpet motifs in geometrical and curved styles require frames to be manifested on surfaces of hand woven carpets, so that they can be seen in these frames following structural features of frames in decoration of surfaces where they exist. Common carpet motifs include medallion, hunting ground, Vagire (knot) and some traditional or integrated patterns each of which has special structural feature. The present research was applied and examined motifs of Persian carpets. Data collection was done by a field and desk method; and data analysis had a qualitative type. The present paper aimed to combine the elements used in Persian carpets and interior design to revive original Persian culture in today’s modern life. So, while investigating structural characteristics of Persian carpet designs, it addresses their applicability in the interior decoration. Research results indicated that designs of Persian carpets could reflect a new type of visual thinking that had a parallel relationship with the modern world. In this regard, the designs and patterns of wallpaper as one of the elements of modern decoration can perfectly translate this concept. According to a thematic study on applied motifs of decorations, the convergence of identity boundaries and motif deconstruction in the conceptual perception of designs depicts previous rational structures in a new reflection of human aspirations.

Elnaz Abbasian, Mohsen Faizi, AsgharMohammad Moradi, Reza Khosroabadi, Abbas Erfanian Omidvar

The efficiency essence of cognitive science too ls in architectural design to reduce depression symptoms

Abstract

In the world of digit, science brings novel facilities for human’s welfare in the city. Urban sprawl and some urban inappropriateness, environmental pollution, necessity of creating new urban users, and limited access of urban human toward nature has caused lots of mental illnesses. Depression is a common mental illness in cities and based on “The World Health Organization” in 2030, it will be the third common disease. The most important part of design goals in space and buildings are mental health of people. So, biological indicators are really noticeable in architectural design to reduce illness symptoms particularly in the field of mental health. Cognitive science can reduce the gap between designer and users’ needs by interpreting data, taking a glance at the effects of real design space on human body and his nervous system, and environment effectiveness rate on human mental and physical health. The methodology of this research is based on Documentary method. The purpose of the research is finding common field identification of architecture; nervous science exploitation which cognitive tools connect them.

Ashrafosadat Mousavilar, Sepideh Taravati Mahjoubi

BRANDING: PRESERVING THE AUTHENTICITY OF IRANIAN HANDMADE CARPETS

Abstract

Today, brand application, according to its old definition, is not limited to the name of a company and the brand is not only considered as a reputation symbol, but also an indicator of authenticity of company’s product. The brand is evaluated as part of intangible, but sensible assets of a company. Considering the importance and history of exporting Iranian handmade carpets as well as emerging rivals trying to conquer their global position, branding and adopting a strategy to preserve the authenticity of Iranian handmade carpets is necessary. Maintaining the originality of design and quality of export carpets requires adopting a suitable strategy. The present study describes the application of branding in a descriptive and analytical approach. The research methodology is a comprehensive review of brand owners and manufacturers in the field of handmade carpets and target markets, which are collected by interviewing or electronic polling. Then the data is analyzed in the SPSS software. Branding not only creates a kind of personality but also ensures the quality and authenticity of the Iranian export carpets and will reopen its original position in the target markets.

Reza Rafiei Rad

INVESTIGATING TH E IMPACT OF AMBASSADOR BRANDS ON TH E SALES OF BRAND-NEW PRODUCT S: A CASE OF BIODENT AND STARDENT CH EWING SUG AR-FREE GU MS

Abstract

In marketing, and especially in the branding strategy, planning to launch a new product under an established brand is one thing, and launching an entirely brand-new product is something else. Although marketing and branding play an important role in introducing new products to the audience, however, implementing each of these strategies is entirely depended on the experiences that the company has gained in engaging with its customers. This essay, study on the influence of investigating the impact of ambassador brands on the sales of Brand-new Products. In a test has been accomplished for product marketing, after analysis the new brand, in the beginning, it presents to the people in two main methods as follows: First, Introducing the new product as a subset of the company’s ambassador brand (by placing the ambassador brand sign on the new product packaging). Second, introducing the new product as a brand-new product, without referring to the ambassador brand. The Ambassador’s brand used in this study was Biodent chewing sugarfree gum which is considered as a well-known product among audiences, based on previous company’s marketing studies. The new product was introduced to the audience through a brand-new product called Stardent. Both products and brands belonged to Master Foodeh, an Iranian company producing chewing sugar-free gum. After a survey with a three-month timeframe on 600 customers and using the methods mentioned above, the sales volume of each product was analyzed and compared.